Geology About

Nowadays, a career in Geology is gaining a lot of popularity. It is emerging as a career that opens the doors to a plethora of opportunities for people aspiring to become Geologists. It is the branch of science that deals with the study of the earth, its environment, history, minerals, etc. A scientist who studies the earth's crust to obtain an accurate picture of its structure, history, and composition is termed a Geologist. A Geologist studies the composition of the earth, assesses the natural disasters and their effects on the environment, explores areas rich in under-water resources, oil, natural gas, and minerals, and determines the quality of soil by conducting geochemical and geophysical tests.

The main function of Geologists is to understand the history of our planet and how its materials, structures, processes, and organisms have changed over the period of time. They perform their job by making geologic maps and charts, analyzing aerial photographs, rock samples, and other data sources to locate deposits of natural resources, preparing written scientific reports, and conducting laboratory tests on samples collected in the field. Overall, Geologists play a vital role in exploring mineral wealth and natural resources.

Career Roles & Responsibilities

There are some of the most sought-after jobs profiles in the field of Geology. Geologists can work for private industries, the federal government, museums, colleges, and universities. To make a career as a Geologist, aspirants can target the following Geologist job profiles:

Geological Technologists: Their job is to conduct or direct geological or geophysical surveys and prospecting field trips, assist engineers and geologists in the evaluation and analysis of petroleum and mineral reservoirs. They also prepare/supervise the preparation of rock, mineral, or metal samples and perform physical and chemical laboratory tests.

Engineering Geologist: Their job is to identify and deal with geological factors affecting engineering works. They consult geological maps and aerial photographs to advise on site selection and oversee the progress of specific contracts. They also assess the integrity of soil, rock, groundwater, and other natural conditions prior to major construction projects.

Geological Technicians: The job of a Geological Technician is to participate in geological or geophysical surveys, prospecting field trips, and environmental audits and operate and maintain geophysical survey and well-logging instruments and equipment.

Geochemists: They analyse the age, nature, and components of rock, minerals, soil, and other environmental samples, map specific geochemical areas for research and analysis and provide support and recommendations to mainstream geologists.

Geophysicist/Field Seismologist: They are responsible for controlling the quality of the seismic data collected and interpreting it in order to create maps of the build-up of hydrocarbons. They design, test, modify and repair seismic equipment and compile charts and reports.

Geoscientists: They are involved in interpreting geophysical, geochemical, and geological data to develop models of the subsurface of the earth. They collect information in the field, from seismic and well data from other sources, and monitor the acquisition of data to ensure consistent quality. Moreover, they implement new technologies in geological modeling and seismic processing.

Hydrogeologist: Hydrogeologists interpret technical data and information from maps and historical documents, to build a conceptual model of groundwater flow and quality. They undertake fieldwork and site visits for investigative and monitoring purposes and apply their knowledge of fundamental geology to develop an understanding of how rock types and structures in an area impact groundwater occurrence and movement.

Career Education Path Summary

1. Undergraduate courses

  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Geology, Earth science, Environmental science
  • Bachelor of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Geology, Earth Science, Environmental Science

2. Postgraduate courses

  • Master of Science (M.Sc) in Geology, Applied Geology
  • Master of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Master of Technology in Geology, Applied Geology

3. There is also a Doctoral Course available for Geologists, in which one can do a Ph.D. in Geology.

Specializations available in Geology:
Here are the various specialities from which you can choose the one which best suits your interest:

  • Marine Geology
  • Engineering Geology
  • Structural Geology
  • Geomorphology
  • Economic Geology
  • Geochemistry
  • Volcanology
  • Mineralogy

What are the employment opportunities?

  • There is huge scope for geologists in various industries related to research and exploration of the earth’s crust, its matter, rocks, oceans, and its applied fields like construction, mining, weather forecast, and many more. Mostly, geologists work in the natural gas and petroleum industry.
  • Geologists also find work opportunities in private industries, universities, colleges, and museums.
  • There are huge career opportunities for a Geologist in the research and core-field work. For the ones who love to explore things and live in unusual learning and working environments, this field offers many chances for progress.
  • The other fields you can work in with a Geology degree are Engineering geologist, Geochemist, Geophysicist/field seismologist, Geoscientist, Hydrogeologist, Seismic interpreter, Mud logger, and Well site geologist.
Similar Careers

The salary of a Geologist depends on various factors such as proficiency, level of experience, industry, geographic location, and education and training. Following are some relative salary figures for different job profiles of a Geologist:

Job Profile

Starting Salary per annum (in INR)

Mid Level Salary per annum (in INR)

Senior Level Salary per annum (INR)









Career Pros Details
  • There are many jobs that one can branch off into such as construction, energy, environmental protection, disaster detection, and many other areas affected by the physical world.
  • Geology is an ideal career for those who do not wish to be office-bound since much of the geologist’s work is done in the field.
  • Geologists get to be updated with advances in sophisticated equipment and software.
Career Cons Details
  • Geologists may have to work in physically challenging, even risky locations as this job involves fieldwork and travel.
  • One may have to work in unconventional hours and overtime, particularly during fieldwork.
Sudipta Sengupta
Sudipta Sengupta
Sudipta Sengupta is a professor in structural geology at Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, and a trained mountaineer. She is one of the first Indian women (along with Aditi Pant) to set foot on Antarctica. She is also popularly known in India for her book Antarctica in Bengali and numerous articles and television interviews on geosciences. She has published extensively in international peer-reviewed journals of structural geology. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded her the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards for her contributions to Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Sciences in 1991. Professor Sengupta has published numerous papers in Indian as well as international journals. She has edited a book with contributions by renowned structural geologists and also authored a book on her travels and work in Antarctica which has become a best seller in West Bengal. She was awarded the Bhatnagar Award for excellence in science by the Government of India. She is a Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy. Professor Sengupta also received the National Mineral Award and the Antarctica Award from the Government of India, along with numerous other awards like the Profession and Career Award of the Lady Study Group. Professor Sengupta was part of a forum titled 'Women in Science and Technology' at the India International Centre in New Delhi. It was acknowledged that Sengupta was a geologist during the 80s, a time when women were discouraged from taking part in any fieldwork. Sengupta was a guest speaker during the event and began by quoting Eleanor Roosevelt: "The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams."
Talat Ahmad
Talat Ahmad
Talat Ahmad is an Indian Earth Scientist and Professor at Department of Geology, University of Delhi. He commenced his second stint as Vice-Chancellor of University of Kashmir on 06 August 2018[1] after serving as Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia after he resigned from the post a few months short of his full term[2]. He was shortlisted by a Committee constituted by the Governor to shortlist a panel for the post[3]. He had earlier taken over as Vice-Chancellor of University of Kashmir from Professor Riyaz Punjabi on 1 June 2011.[4] Prior to this, he was teaching geology at the University of Delhi. Talat Ahmad was selected to serve a second term as Vice-Chancellor University of Kashmir after he was selected by Governor of Jammu and Kashmir Narinder Nath Vohra in his capacity as Chancellor of the State University[6]. He was handed over charge by Professor Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi who had been serving as officiating Vice-Chancellor since October 2017 after his tenure was over. During his first tenure, Talat Ahmad was recommended for the position of Vice-Chancellor, the University of Kashmir by a search committee headed by a former member of Planning Commission, Prof. Abid Hussain, former Indian Ambassador to the USA, and comprising Professor G. K. Chadha, CEO, South Asian University and former Vice-Chancellor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, and Prof. Seyed E. Hasnain, an eminent Scientist and former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hyderabad. Talat Ahmad is the first Vice-Chancellor to serve a second term and the second Vice-Chancellor to be appointed from outside the state of Jammu and Kashmir in the past two decades. Jalees Ahmad Khan Tareen was the first Vice-Chancellor from outside the state who ran the office from 2001 to 2004.
  • The individual should have a thorough knowledge of subjects like physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics along with the subjects required for specialization in one of the sub-fields.
  • They should be able to work with an array of scientists from multiple disciplines and areas of specialization.
  • Good analytical and decision-making capabilities are very important. A geologist holds huge responsibility to assure the accuracy of the forecasts made by him/her or the team.
  • He/she should have a sound knowledge of computer software’s to plot the data in machine form so that it could be studied or understood by normal human beings.
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